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长尾消费贷“变味”监管应各个击破

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2020年01月21日 14:48:11
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(如)(果)(说)(,从)(“互)(联)(网)(消)(费)(金)(融)(”到)(“互)(联)(网)(消)(费)(贷)(”,是)(长)(尾)(消)(费)(贷)(“发)(霉)(”的)(标)(识)(,那)(么)(,从)(“互)(联)(网)(消)(费)(贷)(”到)(“现)(金)(贷)(”,则)(是)(长)(尾)(消)(费)(贷)(“腐)(烂)(”的)(标)(志)(。很)(显)(然)(,脱)(离)(“消)(费)(”的)(现)(金)(贷)(,改)(变)(了)(消)(费)(贷)(的)(本)(质)(:
首)(先)(,现)(金)(贷)(没)(有)(指)(定)(消)(费)(场)(景)(,所)(有)(人)(都)(可)(以)(申)(请)(,且)(无)(需)(告)(知)(贷)(款)(用)(途)(。其)(次)(,现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(可)(以)(通)(过)(设)(定)(超)(高)(利)(率)(及)(高)(手)(续)(费)(,实)(现)(“收)(益)(覆)(盖)(风)(险)(”,即)(通)(过)(收)(取)(正)(常)(还)(款)(用)(户)(的)(高)(利)(息)(及)(违)(约)(用)(户)(的)(高)(滞)(纳)(金)(来)(填)(补)(坏)(账)(。这)(也)(意)(味)(着)(,现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(可)(以)(完)(全)(不)(用)(考)(虑)(风)(控)(有)(效)(性)(。
更)(为)(巧)(妙)(的)(是)(,由)(于)(借)(款)(期)(限)(较)(短)(,即)(使)(面)(对)(超)(高)(的)(年)(化)(利)(率)(,用)(户)(也)(毫)(无)(察)(觉)(。与)(此)(同)(时)(,第)(三)(方)(暴)(力)(催)(收)(机)(构)(,可)(以)(帮)(助)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(收)(回)(部)(分)(坏)(账)(资)(金)(,从)(而)(解)(决)(了)(平)(台)(的)(“后)(顾)(之)(忧)(”。由)(此)(可)(见)(,对)(于)(现)(金)(贷)(来)(说)(,消)(费)(金)(融)(中)(的)(客)(户)(、风)(控)(以)(及)(场)(景)(困)(境)(都)(不)(复)(存)(在)(。在)(此)(意)(义)(上)(,只)(要)(平)(台)(有)(稳)(定)(的)(放)(贷)(资)(金)(,现)(金)(贷)(模)(式)(就)(能)(持)(续)(开)(展)(下)(去)(并)(迅)(速)(获)(得)(盈)(利)(。
事)(实)(上)(,当)(前)(很)(多)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(的)(放)(贷)(资)(金)(来)(源)(不)(清)(,而)(被)(曝)(光)(的)(“多)(头)(借)(贷)(”,则)(暗)(示)(了)(平)(台)(之)(间)(的)(资)(金)(流)(动)(可)(能)(相)(当)(频)(繁)(。“多)(头)(借)(贷)(”的)(出)(现)(,不)(仅)(反)(映)(出)(长)(尾)(群)(体)(极)(不)(理)(性)(的)(消)(费)(观)(,也)(反)(映)(出)(不)(健)(全)(征)(信)(体)(系)(带)(来)(的)(严)(重)(弊)(端)(。与)(此)(同)(时)(,很)(多)(平)(台)(私)(下)(鼓)(励)(“借)(旧)(还)(新)(”,这)(不)(仅)(给)(非)(理)(性)(消)(费)(人)(群)(造)(成)(巨)(大)(伤)(害)(,而)(且)(加)(速)(了)(行)(业)(风)(险)(累)(积)(,一)(旦)(集)(聚)(爆)(发)(,后)(果)(不)(堪)(设)(想)(。
通)(过)(上)(述)(分)(析)(可)(知)(,无)(论)(是)(何)(种)(消)(费)(贷)(模)(式)(,只)(要)(解)(决)(好)(“客)(户)(、风)(控)(、资)(金)(、场)(景)(”困)(境)(,就)(能)(够)(获)(得)(快)(速)(发)(展)(。而)(在)(实)(际)(运)(营)(中)(,不)(同)(模)(式)(应)(对)(困)(境)(的)(手)(段)(各)(不)(相)(同)(。“变)(味)(”的)(长)(尾)(消)(费)(贷)(,则)(通)(过)(“耍)(小)(聪)(明)(”钻)(了)(五)(个)(空)(子)(:一)(是)(钻)(了)(“国)(内)(征)(信)(体)(系)(不)(健)(全)(”的)(空)(子)(,二)(是)(钻)(了)(“国)(家)(鼓)(励)(政)(策)(先)(行)(但)(监)(管)(及)(立)(法)(滞)(后)(”的)(空)(子)(,三)(是)(钻)(了)(“持)(牌)(金)(融)(机)(构)(受)(到)(强)(监)(管)(”的)(空)(子)(,四)(是)(钻)(了)(“长)(尾)(人)(群)(消)(费)(需)(求)(旺)(盛)(但)(不)(够)(理)(性)(”的)(空)(子)(,五)(是)(钻)(了)(“技)(术)(创)(新)(噱)(头)(高)(但)(底)(子)(薄)(”的)(空)(子)(。在)(钻)(空)(子)(的)(基)(础)(上)(,再)(经)(过)(巧)(妙)(的)(流)(程)(包)(装)(,“变)(味)(”的)(长)(尾)(消)(费)(贷)(粉)(墨)(登)(场)(,乱)(象)(丛)(生)(。
多)(措)(并)(举)(实)(施)(监)(管)(
第)(五)(次)(全)(国)(金)(融)(工)(作)(会)(议)(提)(出)(,要)(紧)(紧)(围)(绕)(“服)(务)(实)(体)(、防)(控)(风)(险)(、深)(化)(改)(革)(”三)(大)(任)(务)(,完)(善)(金)(融)(市)(场)(体)(系)(,建)(设)(普)(惠)(金)(融)(体)(系)(,解)(决)(经)(济)(社)(会)(发)(展)(的)(薄)(弱)(环)(节)(。事)(实)(上)(,消)(费)(金)(融)(既)(有)(利)(于)(更)(好)(地)(服)(务)(实)(体)(经)(济)(,也)(有)(利)(于)(金)(融)(改)(革)(深)(化)(和)(市)(场)(体)(系)(完)(善)(,还)(有)(利)(于)(长)(尾)(人)(群)(获)(得)(普)(惠)(金)(融)(发)(展)(红)(利)(。前)(提)(则)(是)(,必)(须)(通)(过)(有)(效)(的)(监)(管)(措)(施)(防)(控)(消)(费)(金)(融)(风)(险)(。
当)(前)(,“变)(味)(”的)(长)(尾)(消)(费)(贷)(,已)(成)(为)(捆)(绑)(在)(长)(尾)(人)(群)(身)(上)(的)(“枷)(锁)(”,迫)(切)(需)(要)(监)(管)(出)(手)(消)(除)(。笔)(者)(认)(为)(,对)(于)(消)(费)(贷)(乱)(象)(,应)(该)(从)(以)(下)(几)(个)(方)(面)(予)(以)(规)(范)(:
首)(先)(,要)(针)(对)(消)(费)(贷)(各)(个)(环)(节)(中)(存)(在)(的)(不)(法)(行)(为)(,采)(用)(各)(个)(击)(破)(的)(监)(管)(思)(路)(。一)(方)(面)(,要)(对)(单)(个)(平)(台)(的)(获)(客)(方)(式)(、风)(险)(控)(制)(、资)(金)(来)(源)(以)(及)(场)(景)(拓)(展)(进)(行)(深)(入)(排)(查)(,尤)(其)(要)(对)(平)(台)(放)(贷)(资)(金)(来)(源)(进)(行)(重)(点)(监)(测)(。另)(一)(方)(面)(,要)(对)(消)(费)(贷)(生)(态)(链)(中)(的)(各)(个)(主)(体)(,包)(括)(消)(费)(贷)(平)(台)(本)(身)(、互)(联)(网)(巨)(头)(等)(导)(流)(平)(台)(、个)(人)(征)(信)(试)(点)(机)(构)(、第)(三)(方)(催)(收)(机)(构)(、第)(三)(方)(数)(据)(提)(供)(商)(等)(进)(行)(合)(法)(性)(排)(查)(,严)(厉)(打)(击)(利)(益)(勾)(结)(及)(非)(法)(利)(益)(输)(送)(。
其)(次)(,要)(统)(一)(监)(管)(标)(准)(,综)(合)(运)(用)(多)(种)(监)(管)(手)(段)(。之)(所)(以)(市)(场)(上)(出)(现)(“劣)(币)(驱)(逐)(良)(币)(”现)(象)(,正)(是)(因)(为)(当)(前)(针)(对)(各)(类)(从)(业)(主)(体)(的)(监)(管)(标)(准)(不)(统)(一)(,大)(量)(不)(受)(监)(管)(的)(互)(联)(网)(消)(费)(贷)(平)(台)(扰)(乱)(了)(市)(场)(秩)(序)(。在)(此)(意)(义)(上)(,应)(当)(按)(照)(统)(一)(标)(准)(,对)(所)(有)(从)(业)(主)(体)(实)(施)(穿)(透)(式)(监)(管)(,不)(给)(任)(何)(非)(法)(平)(台)(留)(空)(子)(。与)(此)(同)(时)(,要)(综)(合)(运)(用)(多)(种)(监)(管)(手)(段)(,包)(括)(准)(入)(监)(管)(与)(过)(程)(管)(理)(、功)(能)(监)(管)(与)(行)(为)(监)(管)(、联)(合)(监)(管)(与)(协)(调)(监)(管)(、以)(及)(直)(接)(监)(管)(等)(。尤)(其)(要)(严)(控)(消)(费)(贷)(平)(台)(准)(入)(,严)(防)(以)(“信)(息)(科)(技)(之)(名)(”行)(“金)(融)(业)(务)(之)(实)(”的)(平)(台)(获)(得)(注)(册)(。对)(于)(已)(经)(注)(册)(通)(过)(的)(相)(关)(平)(台)(,要)(坚)(决)(予)(以)(取)(缔)(。
再)(次)(,要)(借)(鉴)(国)(外)(监)(管)(经)(验)(,加)(强)(相)(关)(法)(律)(法)(规)(制)(定)(。当)(前)(我)(国)(消)(费)(贷)(发)(展)(中)(出)(现)(的)(“高)(利)(率)(、多)(重)(债)(务)(、暴)(力)(催)(收)(”现)(象)(,在)(日)(本)(也)(曾)(造)(成)(严)(重)(危)(害)(。彼)(时)(,日)(本)(通)(过)(发)(布)(《贷)(金)(业)(法)(》等)(法)(律)(法)(规)(,强)(化)(消)(费)(贷)(监)(管)(,具)(体)(措)(施)(包)(括)(设)(立)(严)(格)(市)(场)(准)(入)(、设)(立)(借)(款)(人)(最)(高)(融)(资)(限)(额)(、设)(立)(贷)(款)(最)(高)(利)(率)((包)(含)(手)(续)(费)()等)(。我)(国)(应)(充)(分)(借)(鉴)(国)(外)(监)(管)(经)(验)(,通)(过)(立)(法)(实)(现)(长)(治)(久)(安)(。在)(具)(体)(立)(法)(过)(程)(中)(,建)(议)(着)(重)(考)(虑)(准)(入)(标)(准)(、持)(牌)(经)(营)(、利)(率)(上)(限)((含)(手)(续)(费)()设)(定)(、贷)(款)(用)(途)(限)(定)(、平)(台)(退)(出)(方)(式)(等)(。
除)(此)(以)(外)(,从)(长)(远)(来)(看)(,要)(加)(快)(诚)(信)(社)(会)(建)(设)(与)(个)(人)(征)(信)(体)(系)(完)(善)(。当)(前)(,我)(国)(的)(诚)(信)(社)(会)(建)(设)(虽)(然)(已)(取)(得)(显)(著)(成)(绩)(,但)(距)(离)(支)(撑)(信)(用)(社)(会)(发)(展)(还)(有)(很)(长)(距)(离)(。与)(此)(同)(时)(,我)(国)(的)(个)(人)(征)(信)(体)(系)(长)(期)(落)(后)(于)(信)(贷)(发)(展)(,导)(致)(用)(户)(日)(益)(增)(长)(的)(消)(费)(信)(贷)(需)(求)(得)(不)(到)(满)(足)(,给)(不)(法)(平)(台)(留)(了)(空)(隙)(、钻)(了)(空)(子)(。在)(此)(意)(义)(上)(,监)(管)(层)(要)(联)(合)(公)(共)(部)(门)(、正)(规)(金)(融)(机)(构)(、持)(牌)(消)(费)(金)(融)(公)(司)(、大)(型)(互)(联)(网)(平)(台)(、个)(人)(征)(信)(试)(点)(机)(构)(、大)(型)(数)(据)(公)(司)(等)(,共)(同)(推)(动)(数)(据)(信)(息)(共)(享)(及)(市)(场)(化)(征)(信)(体)(系)(建)(设)(,以)(支)(撑)(消)(费)(信)(贷)(业)(务)(开)(展)(。
最)(后)(,要)(做)(好)(消)(费)(者)(教)(育)(,加)(强)(消)(费)(者)(适)(当)(性)(管)(理)(,要)(合)(理)(引)(导)(“长)(尾)(人)(群)(去)(杠)(杆)(”,有)(效)(约)(束)(消)(费)(贷)(款)(用)(途)(。毕)(竟)(,带)(动)(我)(国)(经)(济)(发)(展)(的)(是)(全)(体)(消)(费)(者)(实)(实)(在)(在)(的)(健)(康)(消)(费)(,而)(不)(是)(长)(尾)(人)(群)(加)(杠)(杆)(的)(过)(度)(消)(费)(。
十)(九)(大)(报)(告)(指)(出)(,我)(国)(的)(社)(会)(主)(要)(矛)(盾)(已)(经)(转)(化)(为)(人)(民)(日)(益)(增)(长)(的)(美)(好)(生)(活)(需)(要)(和)(不)(平)(衡)(不)(充)(分)(的)(发)(展)(之)(间)(的)(矛)(盾)(。一)(方)(面)(,消)(费)(金)(融)(已)(成)(为)(满)(足)(长)(尾)(人)(群)(美)(好)(生)(活)(需)(要)(的)(重)(要)(方)(式)(。另)(一)(方)(面)(,我)(国)(当)(前)(的)(消)(费)(金)(融)(发)(展)(既)(不)(够)(平)(衡)(也)(不)(够)(充)(分)(。因)(此)(,唯)(有)(通)(过)(市)(场)(和)(监)(管)(共)(同)(努)(力)(,才)(能)(实)(现)(促)(进)(消)(费)(金)(融)(健)(康)(发)(展)(与)(满)(足)(长)(尾)(人)(群)(美)(好)(生)(活)(需)(要)(的)(双)(重)(目)(标)(。
(作)(者)(系)(交)(通)(银)(行)(金)(融)(研)(究)(中)(心)(高)(级)(研)(究)(员)(,本)(文)(仅)(代)(表)(个)(人)(观)(点)(,不)(代)(表)(所)(在)(单)(位)(意)(见)()返)(回)(搜)(狐)(,查)(看)(更)(多)(
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