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治理网络侵权是依法治国在互联网领域的具体化

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年08月22日 08:49:57
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(  最)(高)(人)(民)(法)(院)(9日)(发)(布)(了)(《关)(于)(审)(理)(利)(用)(信)(息)(网)(络)(侵)(害)(人)(身)(权)(益)(民)(事)(纠)(纷)(案)(件)(适)(用)(法)(律)(若)(干)(问)(题)(的)(规)(定)(》(以)(下)(简)(称)(《规)(定)(》),并)(于)(10日)(正)(式)(施)(行)(。全)(文)(19条)(,首)(次)(划)(定)(了)(个)(人)(信)(息)(保)(护)(的)(范)(围)(,涉)(及)(网)(络)(平)(台)(规)(避)(责)(任)(,有)(偿)(删)(帖)(,网)(络)(水)(军)(等)(多)(方)(面)(。就)(此)(,光)(明)(网)(记)(者)(采)(访)(了)(国)(家)(行)(政)(学)(院)(政)(府)(法)(治)(咨)(询)(研)(究)(中)(心)(主)(任)(、博)(士)(生)(导)(师)(杨)(伟)(东)(教)(授)(。
  杨)(伟)(东)(指)(出)(,近)(年)(来)(,互)(联)(网)(在)(推)(动)(社)(会)(经)(济)(发)(展)(方)(面)(发)(挥)(了)(积)(极)(作)(用)(,但)(由)(于)(缺)(乏)(规)(范)(和)(规)(则)(的)(约)(束)(,互)(联)(网)(也)(引)(发)(了)(诸)(多)(社)(会)(问)(题)(,引)(发)(了)(广)(泛)(关)(注)(。《规)(定)(》是)(我)(国)(规)(范)(互)(联)(网)(行)(为)(的)(重)(要)(举)(措)(,是)(最)(高)(人)(民)(法)(院)(针)(对)(互)(联)(网)(的)(第)(三)(个)(司)(法)(解)(释)(,适)(用)(范)(围)(是)(一)(般)(的)(民)(事)(权)(益)(。针)(对)(互)(联)(网)(发)(展)(过)(程)(中)(出)(现)(的)(法)(律)(适)(用)(问)(题)(,2012年)(最)(高)(人)(民)(法)(院)(制)(定)(了)(《关)(于)(审)(理)(侵)(害)(信)(息)(网)(络)(传)(播)(权)(民)(事)(纠)(纷)(案)(件)(适)(用)(法)(律)(若)(干)(问)(题)(的)(规)(定)(》,2013年)(最)(高)(法)(和)(最)(高)(检)(制)(定)(了)(《关)(于)(办)(理)(利)(用)(信)(息)(网)(络)(实)(施)(诽)(谤)(等)(刑)(事)(案)(件)(适)(用)(法)(律)(若)(干)(问)(题)(的)(解)(释)(》。这)(三)(个)(司)(法)(解)(释)(共)(同)(形)(成)(了)(有)(关)(互)(联)(网)(法)(律)(问)(题)(的)(裁)(判)(规)(则)(体)(系)(,对)(于)(规)(范)(网)(络)(行)(为)(、建)(立)(良)(好)(的)(网)(络)(秩)(序)(,具)(有)(重)(要)(的)(意)(义)(。
  杨)(伟)(东)(认)(为)(,从)(内)(容)(而)(言)(,《规)(定)(》有)(几)(点)(需)(要)(引)(起)(我)(们)(特)(别)(注)(意)(。首)(先)(,《规)(定)(》对)(网)(络)(供)(应)(商)(和)(用)(户)(之)(间)(的)(关)(系)(、应)(该)(承)(担)(的)(相)(应)(责)(任)(作)(了)(明)(确)(规)(定)(。针)(对)(谁)(当)(被)(告)(,也)(就)(是)(起)(诉)(谁)(的)(问)(题)(,规)(定)(双)(方)(可)(以)(当)(共)(同)(被)(告)(,一)(方)(被)(起)(诉)(时)(,可)(以)(要)(求)(另)(一)(方)(作)(为)(共)(同)(被)(告)(。第)(二)(,自)(媒)(体)(时)(代)(,转)(发)(可)(能)(会)(承)(担)(民)(事)(责)(任)(,严)(重)(的)(甚)(至)(会)(承)(担)(刑)(事)(责)(任)(。责)(任)(的)(判)(定)(会)(根)(据)(具)(体)(过)(错)(、危)(害)(的)(程)(度)(,以)(及)(可)(能)(出)(现)(情)(形)(来)(进)(行)(。第)(三)(,雇)(佣)(、组)(织)(的)(网)(络)(水)(军)(发)(布)(、转)(发)(网)(络)(信)(息)(侵)(害)(他)(人)(人)(身)(权)(益)(时)(,组)(织)(者)(和)(帮)(助)(者)(都)(要)(承)(担)(责)(任)(。雇)(佣)(者)(和)(被)(雇)(佣)(人)(的)(合)(同)(、协)(议)(,法)(律)(不)(予)(认)(定)(其)(有)(效)(性)(。第)(四)(,人)(肉)(搜)(索)(时)(,用)(户)(和)(网)(站)(都)(可)(能)(承)(担)(连)(带)(责)(任)(。如)(果)(在)(信)(息)(当)(中)(泄)(露)(了)(他)(人)(情)(况)(,比)(如)(家)(庭)(住)(址)(、病)(情)(、收)(入)(等)(,除)(非)(是)(当)(事)(人)(同)(意)(或)(者)(免)(责)(的)(情)(况)(,用)(户)(和)(网)(站)(都)(要)(承)(担)(责)(任)(。这)(样)(的)(搜)(索)(和)(发)(布)(即)(使)(是)(随)(意)(的)(,也)(是)(有)(底)(线)(的)(,不)(能)(随)(意)(地)(发)(布)(这)(些)(,即)(使)(信)(息)(是)(真)(实)(的)(,也)(要)(受)(到)(限)(制)(。第)(五)(,网)(购)(中)(的)(恶)(意)(差)(评)(,损)(害)(经)(营)(主)(体)(的)(社)(会)(评)(价)(,也)(要)(承)(担)(责)(任)(。因)(而)(,网)(络)(用)(户)(或)(者)(网)(络)(服)(务)(提)(供)(者)(不)(能)(采)(取)(诽)(谤)(、诋)(毁)(等)(手)(段)(,损)(害)(公)(众)(对)(经)(营)(主)(体)(的)(信)(赖)(,降)(低)(其)(产)(品)(或)(者)(服)(务)(的)(社)(会)(评)(价)(。
  网)(购)(中)(的)(恶)(意)(差)(评)(如)(何)(界)(定)(呢)(?杨)(伟)(东)(认)(为)(,《规)(定)(》目)(前)(还)(是)(笼)(统)(的)(,并)(不)(具)(体)(。一)(般)(用)(户)(根)(据)(自)(己)(的)(判)(断)(给)(予)(差)(评)(,很)(难)(构)(成)(责)(任)(。但)(如)(果)(购)(买)(一)(次)(,却)(多)(次)(甚)(至)(是)(雇)(佣)(别)(人)(给)(予)(差)(评)(,可)(能)(就)(会)(承)(担)(相)(应)(责)(任)(。他)(强)(调)(,每)(个)(个)(案)(的)(情)(形)(是)(不)(一)(样)(的)(,这)(种)(模)(糊)(情)(况)(会)(在)(个)(案)(的)(处)(理)(当)(中)(不)(断)(明)(晰)(。
  杨)(伟)(东)(表)(示)(,在)(依)(法)(治)(国)(的)(大)(背)(景)(下)(,《规)(定)(》的)(出)(台)(是)(网)(络)(法)(治)(化)(的)(重)(大)(进)(步)(。近)(两)(年)(来)(,国)(家)(加)(强)(了)(对)(互)(联)(网)(本)(身)(的)(治)(理)(。通)(过)(对)(具)(体)(个)(案)(的)(解)(释)(,能)(够)(使)(网)(络)(秩)(序)(网)(络)(规)(则)(尽)(快)(建)(立)(起)(来)(。《规)(定)(》明)(晰)(了)(网)(络)(当)(中)(侵)(犯)(他)(人)(的)(民)(事)(权)(益)(需)(要)(承)(担)(的)(责)(任)(,无)(论)(是)(网)(站)(还)(是)(其)(他)(相)(关)(人)(员)(,都)(要)(受)(这)(个)(规)(则)(约)(束)(,使)(得)(大)(家)(对)(自)(己)(行)(为)(有)(一)(个)(更)(明)(确)(的)(标)(准)(。从)(整)(体)(来)(看)(,这)(是)(我)(们)(依)(法)(治)(国)(在)(这)(个)(领)(域)(当)(中)(的)(具)(体)(化)(,是)(在)(网)(络)(秩)(序)(中)(迈)(出)(的)(重)(要)(一)(步)(。
  人)(肉)(搜)(索)(的)(规)(定)(是)(否)(会)(影)(响)(群)(众)(对)(反)(腐)(参)(与)(呢)(?杨)(伟)(东)(解)(释)(说)(,人)(肉)(搜)(索)(在)(任)(何)(一)(个)(国)(家)(都)(有)(一)(定)(限)(制)(。《规)(定)(》并)(没)(有)(限)(制)(个)(人)(利)(用)(互)(联)(网)(监)(督)(官)(员)(。但)(同)(时)(,我)(们)(不)(能)(为)(达)(到)(别)(的)(目)(的)(而)(逾)(越)(界)(限)(。所)(以)(,这)(次)(就)(明)(确)(提)(到)(,人)(肉)(搜)(索)(是)(有)(底)(线)(的)(,不)(能)(借)(反)(腐)(之)(名)(把)(别)(人)(个)(人)(信)(息)((甚)(至)(家)(庭)(乃)(至)(更)(广)(的)(范)(围)()随)(意)(发)(布)(。但)(如)(果)(自)(然)(人)(同)(意)(公)(开)(,或)(者)(为)(了)(促)(进)(公)(共)(利)(益)(的)(需)(要)(而)(在)(必)(要)(的)(范)(围)(内)(开)(,或)(者)(科)(研)(机)(构)(为)(了)(公)(共)(利)(益)(的)(需)(要)(而)(从)(事)(学)(术)(活)(动)(,那)(么)(,互)(连)(网)(使)(用)(者)(或)(者)(互)(联)(网)(服)(务)(提)(供)(者)(不)(需)(要)(承)(担)(法)(律)(上)(的)(责)(任)(。杨)(伟)(东)(最)(后)(强)(调)(,《规)(定)(》的)(出)(台)(虽)(然)(将)(个)(人)(利)(用)(互)(联)(网)(发)(布)(信)(息)(限)(定)(在)(一)(定)(范)(围)(,但)(并)(不)(影)(响)(个)(人)(参)(与)(反)(腐)(的)(效)(果)(,同)(时)(也)(有)(利)(于)(保)(护)(公)(民)(的)(隐)(私)(权)(,制)(止)(违)(法)(犯)(罪)(。(光)(明)(网)(记)(者)( 蒋)(正)(翔)(采)(访)(整)(理)()
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