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完善产权制度和要素市场化配置是成熟市场经济体制必然要求

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年11月19日 19:14:00
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(黄)(群)(慧)(:完)(善)(产)(权)(制)(度)(,需)(要)(拥)(有)(完)(善)(的)(市)(场)(准)(入)(和)(退)(出)(机)(制)(,打)(破)(行)(业)(垄)(断)(和)(地)(区)(封)(锁)(,实)(现)(商)(品)(和)(各)(种)(要)(素)(在)(全)(国)(范)(围)(的)(自)(由)(流)(动)(和)(充)(分)(竞)(争)(。具)(体)(而)(言)(,在)(国)(有)(经)(济)(内)(部)(,拥)(有)(开)(放)(的)(产)(权)(结)(构)(,国)(有)(资)(本)(有)(进)(有)(退)(、合)(理)(流)(动)(,非)(国)(有)(资)(本)(能)(够)(参)(与)(国)(有)(资)(本)(置)(换)(。个)(体)(私)(营)(经)(济)(转)(型)(升)(级)(、提)(高)(素)(质)(,国)(有)(资)(本)(和)(各)(类)(非)(国)(有)(资)(本)(相)(互)(渗)(透)(和)(融)(合)(,形)(成)(以)(股)(份)(制)(为)(主)(要)(形)(式)(的)(混)(合)(产)(权)(的)(经)(济)(格)(局)(。规)(范)(的)(产)(权)(市)(场)(是)(实)(现)(企)(业)(存)(量)(资)(产)(流)(动)(的)(必)(要)(条)(件)(。它)(对)(淘)(汰)(落)(后)(企)(业)(和)(产)(业)(,即)(时)(地)(实)(现)(产)(业)(结)(构)(和)(企)(业)(组)(织)(结)(构)(的)(调)(整)(有)(决)(定)(性)(的)(作)(用)(。因)(此)(,必)(须)(有)(一)(套)(完)(整)(的)(企)(业)(兼)(并)(、破)(产)(的)(制)(度)(,包)(括)(资)(产)(的)(清)(算)(与)(评)(估)(、资)(产)(的)(转)(让)(、人)(员)(的)(安)(排)(等)(。只)(有)(这)(样)(,才)(能)(推)(进)(国)(有)(企)(业)(混)(合)(所)(有)(制)(改)(革)(,才)(能)(使)(社)(会)(主)(义)(市)(场)(经)(济)(体)(制)(走)(向)(成)(熟)(和)(完)(善)(,从)(而)(实)(现)(毫)(不)(动)(摇)(巩)(固)(和)(发)(展)(公)(有)(制)(经)(济)(,毫)(不)(动)(摇)(鼓)(励)(、支)(持)(、引)(导)(非)(公)(有)(制)(经)(济)(发)(展)(。
中)(国)(经)(济)(时)(报)(:完)(善)(产)(权)(制)(度)(对)(国)(企)(混)(合)(所)(有)(制)(改)(革)(有)(何)(重)(要)(意)(义)(?
黄)(群)(慧)(:完)(善)(产)(权)(制)(度)(,实)(现)(产)(权)(激)(励)(,对)(于)(深)(化)(国)(有)(企)(业)(混)(合)(所)(有)(制)(改)(革)(,进)(而)(形)(成)(混)(合)(所)(有)(制)(经)(济)(至)(关)(重)(要)(。
当)(前)(混)(合)(所)(有)(制)(改)(革)(推)(进)(遇)(到)(的)(最)(大)(困)(难)(就)(是)(产)(权)(的)(法)(律)(制)(度)(还)(不)(完)(善)(。混)(合)(所)(有)(制)(改)(革)(是)(一)(个)(非)(常)(复)(杂)(的)(系)(统)(工)(程)(,涉)(及)(股)(权)(结)(构)(设)(计)(、各)(方)(利)(益)(调)(整)(、激)(励)(机)(制)(重)(构)(、产)(权)(市)(场)(交)(易)(以)(及)(资)(产)(价)(值)(判)(断)(等)(企)(业)(内)(外)(的)(各)(种)(活)(动)(,要)(求)(确)(保)(各)(类)(产)(权)(得)(到)(平)(等)(保)(护)(,确)(保)(股)(权)(转)(让)(、增)(资)(扩)(股)(等)(市)(场)(信)(息)(公)(开)(透)(明)(,确)(保)(市)(场)(交)(易)(过)(程)(严)(格)(监)(管)(和)(第)(三)(方)(机)(构)(的)(作)(用)(有)(效)(发)(挥)(,这)(都)(需)(要)(以)(产)(权)(法)(律)(制)(度)(建)(设)(为)(前)(提)(。当)(前)(推)(进)(混)(合)(所)(有)(制)(改)(革)(的)(最)(大)(障)(碍)(在)(于)(,从)(国)(有)(股)(东)(的)(角)(度)(看)(,国)(有)(企)(业)(推)(进)(混)(合)(所)(有)(制)(改)(革)(有)(造)(成)(国)(有)(资)(产)(流)(失)(的)(担)(忧)(;从)(非)(国)(有)(股)(东)(及)(混)(合)(所)(有)(制)(企)(业)(的)(其)(他)(利)(益)(相)(关)(者)(的)(角)(度)(看)(,也)(有)(在)(推)(进)(混)(合)(所)(有)(制)(改)(革)(过)(程)(中)(对)(非)(国)(有)(产)(权)(或)(其)(他)(类)(型)(的)(国)(有)(或)(公)(有)(制)(产)(权)(、与)(企)(业)(经)(营)(间)(接)(相)(关)(的)(各)(种)(权)(益)(受)(到)(侵)(犯)(的)(担)(忧)(。如)(果)(缺)(乏)(在)(产)(权)(、市)(场)(、公)(司)(治)(理)(等)(各)(方)(面)(的)(法)(律)(制)(度)(保)(障)(,这)(种)(担)(忧)(就)(难)(以)(消)(除)(,国)(企)(混)(合)(所)(有)(制)(改)(革)(也)(就)(无)(法)(实)(质)(性)(推)(进)(。
因)(此)(,混)(合)(所)(有)(制)(改)(革)(必)(须)(试)(点)(先)(行)(,在)(试)(点)(中)(不)(断)(探)(索)(完)(善)(产)(权)(法)(律)(制)(度)(,以)(产)(权)(法)(律)(制)(度)(建)(设)(为)(前)(提)(,只)(有)(产)(权)(法)(律)(体)(系)(相)(对)(完)(善)(后)(,国)(企)(混)(合)(所)(有)(制)(改)(革)(才)(能)(够)(全)(面)(实)(质)(性)(推)(进)(。
完)(善)(要)(素)(市)(场)(化)(配)(置)(机)(制)(
中)(国)(经)(济)(时)(报)(:在)(我)(国)(当)(前)(的)(大)(环)(境)(下)(,要)(素)(在)(市)(场)(化)(配)(置)(中)(出)(现)(了)(哪)(些)(变)(化)(?
黄)(群)(慧)(:随)(着)(我)(国)(人)(口)(红)(利)(的)(消)(失)(、全)(要)(素)(生)(产)(率)(和)(资)(本)(边)(际)(产)(出)(递)(减)(的)(趋)(势)(共)(同)(表)(明)(,我)(国)(经)(济)(发)(展)(的)(中)(长)(期)(供)(给)(要)(素)(正)(在)(发)(生)(变)(化)(,国)(内)(劳)(动)(力)(、资)(金)(、土)(地)(、资)(源)(和)(技)(术)(等)(要)(素)(正)(日)(益)(稀)(缺)(。具)(体)(表)(现)(为)(,在)(劳)(动)(力)(成)(本)(不)(断)(上)(升)(的)(同)(时)(劳)(动)(力)(市)(场)(面)(临)(“招)(工)(难)(”和)(“就)(业)(难)(”的)(局)(面)(,高)(投)(资)(受)(到)(杠)(杆)(率)(过)(高)(的)(约)(束)(日)(益)(难)(以)(为)(继)(、以)(技)(术)(引)(进)(为)(主)(导)(的)(技)(术)(创)(新)(方)(式)(受)(到)(诸)(多)(挑)(战)(、资)(源)(环)(境)(约)(束)(不)(断)(加)(强)(等)(。在)(要)(素)(供)(给)(趋)(紧)(的)(背)(景)(下)(,我)(国)(的)(经)(济)(增)(长)(主)(要)(依)(靠)(要)(素)(数)(量)(投)(入)(来)(驱)(动)(的)(格)(局)(就)(越)(来)(越)(难)(以)(维)(持)(,必)(须)(实)(现)(从)(供)(给)(要)(素)(数)(量)(驱)(动)(到)(供)(给)(要)(素)(质)(量)(驱)(动)(的)(转)(变)(,也)(就)(是)(说)(,供)(给)(要)(素)(集)(约)(化)(就)(成)(为)(我)(国)(经)(济)(可)(持)(续)(增)(长)(的)(必)(然)(要)(求)(,这)(种)(趋)(势)(也)(就)(成)(为)(一)(种)(必)(然)(。
面)(对)(劳)(动)(、资)(本)(等)(要)(素)(红)(利)(逐)(步)(消)(失)(,要)(素)(供)(给)(的)(瓶)(颈)(制)(约)(作)(用)(日)(益)(增)(大)(,要)(素)(集)(约)(化)(要)(求)(日)(益)(强)(烈)(,我)(国)(必)(须)(深)(化)(要)(素)(供)(给)(市)(场)(改)(革)(,提)(高)(要)(素)(供)(给)(的)(质)(量)(和)(效)(率)(。
中)(国)(经)(济)(时)(报)(:十)(九)(大)(报)(告)(强)(调)(,要)(求)(“加)(快)(要)(素)(价)(格)(市)(场)(化)(改)(革)(”,你)(认)(为)(,要)(素)(市)(场)(化)(改)(革)(的)(主)(要)(内)(容)(是)(什)(么)(?
黄)(群)(慧)(:经)(过)(多)(年)(的)(改)(革)(,我)(国)(商)(品)(市)(场)(已)(逐)(步)(完)(善)(,相)(对)(于)(一)(般)(商)(品)(市)(场)(,我)(国)(要)(素)(市)(场)(改)(革)(还)(相)(对)(比)(较)(滞)(后)(,甚)(至)(有)(人)(认)(为)(是)(严)(重)(滞)(后)(。事)(实)(上)(,中)(国)(目)(前)(在)(经)(济)(、社)(会)(中)(的)(诸)(多)(深)(层)(次)(矛)(盾)(均)(是)(要)(素)(市)(场)(化)(滞)(后)(的)(外)(在)(表)(现)(,如)(城)(乡)(差)(距)(大)(、收)(入)(差)(距)(过)(大)(、教)(育)(公)(平)(问)(题)(、中)(小)(企)(业)(融)(资)(难)(、农)(地)(补)(偿)(纠)(纷)(、科)(技)(成)(果)(转)(化)(不)(够)(等)(现)(象)(。目)(前)(我)(国)(要)(素)(市)(场)(化)(改)(革)(滞)(后)(,不)(仅)(是)(外)(在)(市)(场)(交)(易)(形)(式)(的)(壁)(垒)(,更)(主)(要)(的)(是)(让)(市)(场)(主)(体)(权)(属)(出)(现)(多)(元)(、二)(元)(结)(构)(。这)(种)(二)(元)(结)(构)(不)(仅)(表)(现)(在)(城)(乡)(二)(元)(要)(素)(结)(构)(,还)(表)(现)(在)(不)(同)(所)(有)(制)(企)(业)(之)(间)(存)(在)(的)(二)(元)(要)(素)(结)(构)(。也)(就)(是)(说)(,与)(以)(往)(市)(场)(化)(改)(革)(主)(要)(集)(中)(在)(包)(括)(消)(费)(品)(、生)(产)(资)(料)(在)(内)(的)(一)(般)(商)(品)(市)(场)(不)(同)(,此)(次)(应)(集)(中)(关)(注)(的)(市)(场)(化)(内)(容)(主)(要)(包)(括)(资)(本)(、土)(地)(、货)(币)(、管)(理)(、劳)(动)(力)(、资)(源)(环)(境)(、技)(术)(等)(要)(素)(市)(场)(的)(改)(革)(。
要)(素)(市)(场)(化)(改)(革)(十)(分)(复)(杂)(,资)(本)(、货)(币)(、技)(术)(、土)(地)(、资)(源)(、环)(境)(、劳)(动)(力)(、人)(才)(等)(市)(场)(不)(仅)(有)(各)(自)(的)(特)(性)(,而)(且)(市)(场)(化)(改)(革)(进)(程)(也)(不)(相)(同)(,具)(体)(涉)(及)(到)(农)(民)(工)(市)(民)(化)(、打)(破)(垄)(断)(行)(业)(行)(政)(管)(制)(、不)(同)(所)(有)(制)(企)(业)(平)(等)(使)(用)(要)(素)(、消)(除)(资)(本)(流)(动)(障)(碍)(、提)(高)(资)(本)(市)(场)(配)(置)(效)(率)(、推)(进)(科)(研)(体)(制)(改)(革)(、深)(化)(教)(育)(体)(制)(改)(革)(、提)(高)(企)(业)(技)(术)(创)(新)(能)(力)(等)(多)(块)(“硬)(骨)(头)(”问)(题)(,因)(此)(,要)(有)(针)(对)(性)(地)(分)(层)(分)(类)(推)(进)(,既)(要)(有)(顶)(层)(设)(计)(,又)(要)(有)(可)(行)(的)(路)(线)(图)(和)(具)(体)(推)(进)(措)(施)(。返)(回)(搜)(狐)(,查)(看)(更)(多)(
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