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解密京沪深财政收入高增长:高房价和营改增贡献大?

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年09月23日 02:57:19
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(  【一)(线)(楼)(市)(双)(刃)(剑)(】一)(线)(城)(市)(房)(地)(产)(回)(暖)(正)(助)(财)(政)(收)(入)(回)(升)(,一)(季)(度)(北)(京)(、上)(海)(、广)(东)(经)(济)(增)(速)(分)(别)(只)(有)(6.9%、6.7%、7.3%,在)(全)(国)(排)(名)(靠)(后)(,但)(是)(这)(些)(地)(区)(财)(政)(收)(入)(位)(于)(全)(国)(前)(列)(,三)(地)(一)(般)(公)(共)(预)(算)(收)(入)(增)(速)(分)(别)(是)(13.4%、28.3%、16.8%。但)(一)(线)(城)(市)(的)(另)(一)(面)(却)(是)(,房)(地)(产)(结)(构)(日)(趋)(畸)(形)(,地)(王)(频)(出)(,豪)(宅)(泛)(滥)(。高)(企)(的)(房)(价)(不)(断)(推)(高)(城)(市)(生)(活)(生)(产)(成)(本)(,房)(地)(产)(及)(金)(融)(侵)(蚀)(着)(其)(他)(产)(业)(的)(空)(间)(,中)(产)(阶)(层)(和)(实)(业)(公)(司)(试)(图)(逃)(离)(,城)(市)(财)(政)(收)(入)(中)(制)(造)(业)(和)(工)(业)(占)(比)(下)(降)(,创)(业)(创)(新)(活)(力)(衰)(减)(。
  本)(报)(记)(者)(定)(军)(实)(习)(记)(者)(来)(莎)(莎)(北)(京)(报)(道)(
  京)(沪)(深)(政)(府)(钱)(袋)(子)(快)(撑)(破)(了)(。
  根)(据)(各)(地)(财)(政)(部)(门)(公)(布)(的)(数)(字)(,4月)(上)(海)(、深)(圳)(一)(般)(公)(共)(预)(算)(收)(入)(分)(别)(完)(成)(840.4亿)(元)(、334.51亿)(元)(,分)(别)(同)(比)(增)(35.3%、31.48%。同)(期)(北)(京)(一)(般)(公)(共)(预)(算)(收)(入)(也)(达)(到)(了)(12.4%的)(增)(速)(。
  这)(与)(当)(地)(经)(济)(增)(速)(并)(不)(相)(称)(。一)(季)(度)(京)(沪)(深)(GDP(地)(区)(生)(产)(总)(值)()增)(速)(分)(别)(是)(6.9%、6.7%、8.4%,在)(全)(国)(城)(市)(中)(排)(名)(并)(不)(靠)(前)(。但)(三)(地)(一)(季)(度)(的)(一)(般)(预)(算)(收)(入)(实)(现)(了)(快)(速)(增)(长)(。
  另)(外)(,这)(些)(地)(区)(的)(工)(业)(增)(速)(并)(不)(高)(,其)(中)(上)(海)(4月)(规)(模)(以)(上)(工)(业)(增)(速)(是)(-7%,北)(京)(为)(1.9%,上)(海)(增)(速)(为)(全)(国)(倒)(数)(第)(二)(。而)(这)(些)(财)(政)(收)(入)(大)(增)(可)(能)(与)(服)(务)(业)(发)(展)(快)(有)(关)(。
  国)(家)(税)(务)(总)(局)(研)(究)(所)(研)(究)(员)(付)(广)(军)(告)(诉)(记)(者)(,工)(业)(增)(速)(很)(低)(,但)(是)(增)(值)(税)(大)(增)(,可)(能)(与)(很)(多)(工)(业)(领)(域)(的)(服)(务)(业)(分)(拆)(出)(来)(,缴)(纳)(增)(值)(税)(有)(关)(。“我)(知)(道)(的)(很)(多)(集)(团)(公)(司)(分)(拆)(成)(了)(小)(公)(司)(,单)(独)(的)(服)(务)(业)(公)(司)(增)(多)(,缴)(纳)(的)(税)(多)(,财)(政)(收)(入)(增)(速)(就)(提)(高)(了)(。”付)(广)(军)(说)(。
  京)(沪)(深)(财)(政)(收)(入)(高)(增)(长)(
  一)(般)(而)(言)(,经)(济)(增)(速)(慢)(,财)(政)(收)(入)(相)(应)(降)(低)(。但)(很)(多)(地)(在)(经)(济)(放)(缓)(时)(,财)(政)(收)(入)(增)(速)(仍)(在)(迅)(猛)(增)(长)(。
  如)(一)(季)(度)(北)(京)(、上)(海)(、广)(东)(经)(济)(增)(速)(分)(别)(只)(有)(6.9%、6.7%、7.3%,在)(全)(国)(排)(名)(靠)(后)(,但)(是)(这)(些)(地)(区)(财)(政)(收)(入)(位)(于)(全)(国)(前)(列)(,三)(地)(一)(般)(公)(共)(预)(算)(收)(入)(增)(速)(分)(别)(是)(13.4%、28.3%、16.8%。到)(了)(4月)(,这)(些)(地)(区)(的)(一)(般)(预)(算)(增)(速)(仍)(是)(高)(位)(,分)(别)(为)(12.3%、30.2%、21%。另)(外)(深)(圳)(表)(现)(抢)(眼)(,4月)(份)(深)(圳)(全)(市)(完)(成)(一)(般)(公)(共)(预)(算)(收)(入)(334.51亿)(元)(,同)(比)(增)(长)(31.48%,比)(一)(季)(度)(的)(29.6%加)(快)(。
  这)(与)(很)(多)(地)(区)(财)(政)(收)(入)(和)(经)(济)(增)(速)(同)(时)(低)(增)(长)(,或)(者)(同)(时)(高)(增)(长)(的)(情)(况)(不)(一)(样)(,前)(者)(如)(东)(北)(三)(省)(,后)(者)(如)(贵)(州)(、重)(庆)(。
  受)(此)(影)(响)(,全)(国)(的)(一)(般)(预)(算)(收)(入)(排)(名)(发)(生)(了)(重)(大)(变)(化)(。前)(4个)(月)(上)(海)(一)(般)(预)(算)(收)(入)(增)(速)(为)(2960.4亿)(元)(,同)(比)(增)(长)(30.2%,直)(逼)(江)(苏)(全)(省)(的)(一)(般)(预)(算)(收)(入)(。江)(苏)(1-4月)(一)(般)(预)(算)(收)(入)(为)(3133.3亿)(元)(,增)(长)(15.5。但)(是)(一)(季)(度)(上)(海)(GDP总)(量)(只)(有)(6225亿)(元)(,还)(不)(急)(江)(苏)(、山)(东)(GDP(分)(别)(为)(16509亿)(元)(、14915亿)(元)()的)(一)(半)(。
  对)(此)(,上)(海)(财)(经)(大)(学)(教)(授)(胡)(怡)(建)(认)(为)(,GDP总)(量)(低)(,财)(政)(收)(入)(高)(,这)(很)(正)(常)(。原)(因)(是)(,上)(海)(今)(年)(以)(来)(服)(务)(业)(发)(展)(快)(,房)(价)(上)(升)(快)(带)(动)(了)(土)(地)(和)(契)(税)(的)(快)(速)(增)(长)(,因)(此)(实)(现)(整)(个)(一)(般)(预)(算)(收)(入)(快)(速)(增)(加)(也)(在)(情)(理)(之)(中)(。这)(种)(情)(况)(在)(其)(他)(一)(线)(城)(市)(也)(存)(在)(。但)(是)(高)(房)(价)(尽)(管)(短)(期)(带)(来)(财)(政)(收)(入)(增)(加)(,但)(是)(也)(会)(提)(高)(商)(务)(和)(居)(住)(成)(本)(。
  “因)(为)(最)(终)(产)(品)(的)(价)(格)(是)(一)(样)(的)(,但)(是)(成)(本)(不)(一)(样)(,这)(样)(高)(成)(本)(的)(地)(区)(优)(势)(难)(以)(维)(持)(。像)(上)(海)(一)(般)(工)(业)(就)(难)(以)(发)(展)(,甚)(至)(一)(些)(研)(发)(机)(构)(也)(会)(增)(加)(成)(本)(。”胡)(怡)(建)(说)(。
  根)(据)(上)(海)(财)(税)(税)(务)(部)(门)(的)(解)(释)(:4月)(份)(,上)(海)(全)(市)(一)(般)(公)(共)(预)(算)(收)(入)(完)(成)(840.4亿)(元)(,比)(2015年)(同)(期)(增)(长)(35.3%。4月)(,全)(市)(一)(般)(公)(共)(预)(算)(收)(入)(保)(持)(平)(稳)(较)(快)(增)(长)(,增)(值)(税)(、营)(业)(税)(、企)(业)(所)(得)(税)(等)(主)(体)(税)(种)(增)(势)(良)(好)(。从)(行)(业)(来)(看)(,租)(赁)(和)(商)(务)(服)(务)(、房)(地)(产)(等)(行)(业)(对)(财)(政)(收)(入)(增)(长)(贡)(献)(较)(大)(。
  具)(体)(分)(析)(各)(个)(税)(种)(,则)(房)(地)(产)(契)(税)(等)(贡)(献)(大)(。如)(一)(季)(度)(的)(数)(字)(显)(示)(,上)(海)(土)(地)(增)(值)(税)(和)(契)(税)(分)(别)(达)(到)(了)(125亿)(、91亿)(元)(,分)(别)(增)(长)(29%、71%。深)(圳)(表)(现)(更)(突)(出)(,一)(季)(度)(土)(地)(整)(治)(水)(和)(契)(税)(增)(速)(分)(别)(达)(到)(108%、37%以)(上)(。
  不)(过)(,深)(圳)(大)(学)(中)(国)(经)(济)(特)(区)(研)(究)(中)(心)(主)(任)(钟)(坚)(有)(自)(己)(的)(看)(法)(。他)(认)(为)(,深)(圳)(财)(政)(收)(入)(增)(长)(快)(,的)(确)(有)(房)(地)(产)(的)(因)(素)(,但)(并)(不)(是)(主)(要)(因)(素)(。
  “深)(圳)(不)(像)(有)(些)(城)(市)(主)(要)(是)(拍)(卖)(土)(地)(,深)(圳)(早)(就)(已)(经)(没)(有)(土)(地)(生)(财)(的)(状)(况)(。而)(且)(大)(批)(自)(主)(企)(业)(的)(势)(头)(发)(展)(非)(常)(好)(,主)(要)(靠)(包)(括)(金)(融)(、高)(端)(技)(术)(等)(产)(业)(获)(得)(发)(展)(。”钟)(坚)(说)(。
  21世)(纪)(经)(济)(报)(道)(记)(者)(获)(悉)(,一)(季)(度)(深)(圳)(企)(业)(所)(得)(税)(、营)(业)(税)(分)(别)(增)(长)(了)(84%、26%以)(上)(。这)(说)(明)(深)(圳)(财)(政)(收)(入)(快)(,不)(只)(是)(房)(价)(高)(增)(的)(贡)(献)(,也)(有)(工)(业)(和)(其)(他)(服)(务)(业)(企)(业)(的)(贡)(献)(。
  营)(改)(增)(和)(房)(地)(产)(贡)(献)(大)(?
  事)(实)(上)(,深)(圳)(除)(了)(房)(地)(产)(价)(格)(迅)(猛)(增)(长)(导)(致)(相)(关)(税)(收)(增)(长)(快)(外)(,其)(他)(的)(工)(业)(和)(服)(务)(业)(领)(域)(税)(收)(也)(增)(速)(很)(快)(。这)(与)(上)(海)(、北)(京)(的)(情)(况)(类)(似)(。
  北)(京)(、上)(海)(、深)(圳)(地)(区)(工)(业)(增)(速)(不)(高)(。1-4月)(三)(地)(规)(模)(以)(上)(工)(业)(增)(速)(分)(别)(为)(1.2%、-5.3%、7.5%,在)(全)(国)(城)(市)(中)(排)(位)(靠)(后)(,其)(中)(上)(海)(在)(全)(国)(省)(市)(自)(治)(区)(排)(名)(为)(全)(国)(倒)(数)(第)(二)(。
  但)(是)(这)(些)(地)(区)(工)(业)(增)(速)(低)(的)(背)(后)(,增)(值)(税)(增)(速)(却)(很)(高)(。如)(一)(季)(度)(上)(海)(增)(值)(税)(、营)(业)(税)(、个)(人)(所)(得)(税)(分)(别)(增)(速)(都)(在)(26%以)(上)(。北)(京)(一)(季)(度)(增)(值)(税)(完)(成)(226.1亿)(元)(,同)(比)(增)(长)(14.3%;营)(业)(税)(完)(成)(356.8亿)(元)(,同)(比)(增)(长)(7.8%;企)(业)(所)(得)(税)(完)(成)(272.9亿)(元)(,同)(比)(增)(长)(12.5%;个)(人)(所)(得)(税)(完)(成)(177.4亿)(元)(,同)(比)(增)(长)(21%。深)(圳)(也)(是)(增)(值)(税)(、营)(业)(税)(、个)(所)(得)(税)(增)(速)(都)(在)(涨)(。
  但)(是)(增)(值)(税)(主)(要)(是)(由)(工)(业)(和)(商)(业)(等)(征)(收)(,营)(业)(税)(在)(5月)(份)(以)(前)(针)(对)(金)(融)(业)(等)(征)(收)(。所)(以)(4月)(深)(圳)(、北)(京)(、上)(海)(营)(业)(税)(税)(额)(高)(容)(易)(理)(解)(。但)(是)(京)(沪)(深)(的)(工)(业)(增)(速)(很)(低)(,上)(海)(还)(是)(负)(数)(,工)(业)(主)(要)(征)(收)(增)(值)(税)(,增)(值)(税)(快)(速)(增)(长)(,与)(工)(业)(低)(迷)(形)(成)(了)(对)(比)(。
  国)(家)(税)(务)(总)(局)(研)(究)(所)(研)(究)(员)(付)(广)(军)(对)(此)(指)(出)(,工)(业)(增)(速)(低)(,增)(值)(税)(增)(速)(一)(般)(也)(低)(。为)(什)(么)(京)(沪)(深)(增)(值)(税)(增)(速)(很)(高)(,可)(能)(与)(服)(务)(业)(营)(业)(税)(改)(增)(值)(税)(有)(关)(。因)(为)(5月)(在)(金)(融)(、房)(地)(产)(等)(多)(个)(行)(业)(营)(业)(税)(改)(为)(了)(增)(值)(税)(,预)(计)(5月)(增)(值)(税)(有)(新)(的)(变)(化)(。另)(外)(,增)(值)(税)(在)(京)(沪)(深)(的)(快)(速)(增)(长)(,可)(能)(与)(一)(些)(集)(团)(公)(司)(实)(施)(分)(拆)(有)(关)(。
  这)(些)(地)(区)(将)(制)(造)(业)(企)(业)(的)(一)(些)(服)(务)(环)(节)(拆)(成)(小)(的)(公)(司)(,单)(独)(征)(收)(服)(务)(业)(。这)(从)(其)(服)(务)(业)(比)(例)(快)(速)(增)(加)(也)(能)(得)(到)(反)(映)(。“但)(是)(具)(体)(分)(析)(还)(要)(有)(深)(入)(的)(数)(据)(来)(解)(读)(。”付)(广)(军)(说)(。
  一)(季)(度)(,京)(沪)(深)(的)(GDP增)(速)(分)(别)(为)(6.9%、6.7%、8.4%,服)(务)(业)(增)(速)(分)(别)(为)(8.2%、11.5%、9.1%,服)(务)(业)(增)(速)(快)(于)(整)(个)(经)(济)(增)(速)(,服)(务)(业)(比)(例)(分)(别)(为)(81.3%、70.6%,59.9%,分)(别)(比)(去)(年)(同)(期)(提)(高)(了)(1.4、2.8、2.7个)(百)(分)(点)(。
  不)(过)(京)(沪)(深)(房)(价)(快)(速)(上)(升)(是)(有)(目)(共)(睹)(的)(。4月)(三)(地)(新)(建)(住)(宅)(价)(格)(同)(比)(涨)(幅)(分)(别)(为)(18.3%、28%、62.4%,其)(中)(深)(沪)(涨)(幅)(分)(列)(全)(国)(第)(一)(、第)(二)(。房)(价)(快)(速)(上)(升)(,会)(使)(得)(土)(地)(增)(值)(税)(和)(房)(地)(产)(交)(易)(契)(税)(快)(速)(增)(长)(,进)(而)(拉)(高)(财)(政)(收)(入)(。但)(是)(因)(为)(高)(房)(价)(不)(只)(是)(给)(一)(般)(制)(造)(业)(造)(成)(压)(力)(,也)(给)(甚)(至)(给)(一)(些)(高)(端)(的)(制)(造)(业)(和)(研)(发)(设)(计)(企)(业)(造)(成)(了)(更)(高)(的)(商)(务)(成)(本)(,经)(济)(难)(以)(可)(持)(续)(。
  上)(海)(财)(经)(大)(学)(教)(授)(胡)(怡)(建)(认)(为)(,高)(房)(价)(也)(会)(对)(研)(发)(企)(业)(造)(成)(一)(些)(生)(存)(压)(力)(,一)(线)(城)(市)(要)(大)(力)(发)(展)(高)(科)(技)(企)(业)(,仍)(需)(要)(注)(意)(高)(房)(价)(带)(来)(的)(负)(面)(影)(响)(。
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