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美国如何将领土扩张至太平洋沿岸

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年11月19日 19:13:02
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(  图)(谋)(控)(制)(太)(平)(洋)(沿)(岸)(
  1844年)(,詹)(姆)(斯)(·波)(尔)(克)(当)(选)(美)(国)(总)(统)(。这)(时)(期)(,美)(国)(还)(只)(是)(一)(个)(小)(国)(家)(,差)(不)(多)(美)(国)(所)(有)(各)(州)(都)(是)(在)(密)(西)(西)(比)(河)(以)(东)(地)(区)(。在)(当)(时)(,美)(国)(已)(经)(购)(买)(路)(易)(斯)(安)(那)(,但)(是)(该)(地)(区)(依)(然)(处)(于)(无)(组)(织)(状)(态)(中)(。英)(国)(宣)(称)(对)(西)(北)(的)(俄)(勒)(冈)(地)(区)(拥)(有)(主)(权)(,而)(墨)(西)(哥)(一)(度)(拥)(有)(得)(克)(萨)(斯)(、新)(墨)(西)(哥)(、科)(罗)(拉)(多)(、犹)(他)(、内)(华)(达)(和)(加)(利)(福)(尼)(亚)(。
  波)(尔)(克)(在)(他)(的)(就)(职)(典)(礼)(结)(束)(时)(,告)(诉)(海)(军)(部)(长)(乔)(治)(·班)(克)(罗)(夫)(特)((GeorgeBancroft)自)(己)(的)(主)(要)(目)(标)(之)(一)(就)(是)(要)(得)(到)(加)(利)(福)(尼)(亚)(。美)(国)(海)(军)(曾)(于)(19世)(纪)(40年)(代)(初)(对)(太)(平)(洋)(海)(岸)(地)(区)(进)(行)(调)(查)(,该)(调)(查)(指)(出)(:即)(使)(不)(是)(最)(好)(的)(,旧)(金)(山)(也)(是)(“世)(界)(上)(最)(好)(的)(港)(口)(之)(一)(”。弗)(吉)(尼)(亚)(大)(学)(教)(授)(诺)(曼)(·格)(雷)(布)(纳)((NormanGraebner)在)(《太)(平)(洋)(帝)(国)(》(EmpireonthePacific)一)(书)(中)(写)(道)(:
  正)(是)(美)(国)(与)(远)(东)(之)(间)(的)(贸)(易)(使)(得)(美)(国)(更)(加)(关)(注)(旧)(金)(山)(港)(口)(。美)(国)(希)(望)(在)(太)(平)(洋)(地)(区)(实)(现)(其)(商)(贸)(繁)(荣)(的)(伟)(业)(,然)(而)(旧)(金)(山)(港)(口)(却)(不)(被)(看)(好)(。从)(地)(理)(位)(置)(上)(看)(,旧)(金)(山)(港)(口)(与)(亚)(洲)(隔)(海)(相)(望)(,这)(就)(使)(得)(旧)(金)(山)(港)(口)(具)(有)(优)(越)(的)(地)(理)(位)(置)(,而)(旧)(金)(山)(港)(口)(内)(在)(的)(优)(势)(将)(会)(进)(一)(步)(加)(强)(它)(的)(地)(位)(。港)(口)(地)(区)(盛)(行)(西)(风)(,这)(就)(使)(得)(它)(成)(为)(印)(度)(、中)(国)(、菲)(律)(宾)(、墨)(西)(哥)(以)(及)(中)(美)(洲)(和)(南)(美)(洲)(的)(太)(平)(洋)(港)(口)(的)(重)(要)(交)(通)(枢)(纽)(。
  就)(俄)(勒)(冈)(领)(土)(自)(身)(而)(言)(,它)(拥)(有)(世)(界)(上)(顶)(级)(的)(港)(口)(,比)(如)(西)(雅)(图)(港)(和)(波)(特)(兰)(港)(。实)(际)(上)(,一)(个)(美)(国)(白)(人)(曾)(经)(宣)(称)(:“如)(果)(一)(个)(国)(家)(拥)(有)(俄)(勒)(冈)(,那)(么)(它)(不)(仅)(会)(控)(制)(太)(平)(洋)(的)(海)(上)(运)(输)(、商)(贸)(以)(及)(夏)(威)(夷)(群)(岛)(,甚)(至)(还)(包)(括)(中)(国)(在)(太)(平)(洋)(地)(区)(的)(贸)(易)(活)(动)(。”马)(里)(兰)(州)(议)(员)(威)(廉)(·费)(尔)(·吉)(尔)(斯)((WilliamFellGiles)说)(美)(国)(雅)(利)(安)(人)(的)(意)(图)(是)(:“我)(们)(必)(须)(跨)(越)(重)(洋)(……直)(接)(奔)(向)(太)(平)(洋)(……能)(阻)(挡)(我)(们)(的)(只)(有)(汹)(涌)(的)(浪)(潮)(……这)(是)(白)(人)(的)(使)(命)(,也)(是)(盎)(格)(鲁)(—撒)(克)(逊)(民)(族)(的)(使)(命)(。”
  很)(快)(,波)(尔)(克)(就)(和)(英)(国)(、墨)(西)(哥)(在)(外)(交)(方)(面)(开)(始)(了)(争)(夺)(。虽)(然)(英)(国)(放)(弃)(了)(俄)(勒)(冈)(,但)(是)(墨)(西)(哥)(人)(却)(牢)(牢)(地)(占)(据)(着)(临)(近)(太)(平)(洋)(的)(重)(要)(地)(区)(。
  入)(侵)(墨)(西)(哥)(
  墨)(西)(哥)(当)(时)(拥)(有)(七)(百)(万)(人)(口)(,它)(于)(1821年)(脱)(离)(西)(班)(牙)(赢)(得)(独)(立)(,并)(且)(仿)(照)(美)(国)(制)(定)(了)(自)(己)(的)(宪)(法)(。国)(际)(公)(认)(的)(墨)(西)(哥)(和)(美)(国)(之)(间)(的)(边)(界)(是)(得)(克)(萨)(斯)(州)(南)(部)(的)(纽)(埃)(西)(斯)(河)(。波)(尔)(克)(总)(统)(却)(认)(为)(两)(国)(之)(间)(的)(边)(界)(应)(该)(是)(格)(兰)(德)(河)(以)(南)(241公)(里)(。他)(命)(令)(扎)(卡)(里)(·泰)(勒)((ZacharyTaylor)将)(军)(进)(入)(两)(河)(之)(间)(的)(墨)(西)(哥)(领)(土)(所)(在)(地)(。墨)(西)(哥)(历)(史)(学)(家)(将)(美)(军)(的)(军)(事)(行)(动)(称)(为)(“美)(国)(入)(侵)(”,而)(美)(国)(历)(史)(学)(家)(则)(称)(之)(为)(“美)(墨)(战)(争)(”。
  泰)(勒)(入)(侵)(墨)(西)(哥)(非)(常)(残)(暴)(,他)(大)(肆)(屠)(杀)(墨)(西)(哥)(当)(地)(的)(平)(民)(,强)(奸)(妇)(女)(。(《纽)(约)(先)(驱)(报)(》这)(样)(报)(道)(遭)(受)(美)(军)(士)(兵)(强)(奸)(的)(墨)(西)(哥)(妇)(女)(:“就)(像)(萨)(宾)(少)(女)(们)(一)(样)(,这)(些)(妇)(女)(很)(快)(就)(会)(爱)(上)(强)(奸)(她)(们)(的)(人)(。”)波)(尔)(克)(率)(命)(令)(七)(千)(名)(士)(兵)(发)(起)(侵)(略)(战)(争)(。他)(认)(为)(战)(争)(几)(天)(之)(后)(即)(可)(结)(束)(,这)(是)(一)(个)(严)(重)(的)(判)(断)(错)(误)(,战)(争)(持)(续)(了)(三)(年)(,涉)(及)(十)(万)(多)(名)(美)(国)(士)(兵)(,美)(国)(士)(兵)(伤)(亡)(人)(数)(多)(达)(一)(万)(三)(千)(多)(名)(,墨)(西)(哥)(死)(亡)(民)(众)(更)(是)(不)(计)(其)(数)(。尤)(里)(西)(斯)(·格)(兰)(特)((UlyssesS.Grant)曾)(经)(在)(墨)(西)(哥)(服)(过)(兵)(役)(,他)(在)(回)(忆)(录)(中)(写)(道)(:这)(场)(战)(争)(“是)(由)(强)(国)(发)(起)(的)(侵)(略)(弱)(国)(的)(最)(不)(公)(正)(的)(战)(争)(之)(一)(”。
  最)(终)(,美)(国)(大)(获)(全)(胜)(,它)(原)(本)(打)(算)(宣)(称)(对)(整)(个)(墨)(西)(哥)(拥)(有)(主)(权)(。但)(是)(,这)(同)(时)(也)(意)(味)(着)(美)(国)(吸)(收)(太)(多)(的)(非)(雅)(利)(安)(人)(。南)(卡)(罗)(来)(纳)(州)(的)(参)(议)(员)(约)(翰)(·卡)(尔)(霍)(恩)((JohnCalhoun)曾)(经)(说)(:“我)(们)(从)(来)(没)(有)(想)(过)(我)(们)(的)(美)(利)(坚)(合)(众)(国)(会)(吸)(收)(除)(了)(白)(种)(人)(以)(外)(的)(种)(族)(,……我)(们)(的)(政)(府)(是)(白)(种)(人)(的)(政)(府)(。”密)(歇)(根)(州)(的)(参)(议)(员)(刘)(易)(斯)(·卡)(斯)((LewisCass)也)(曾)(说)(过)(:“我)(们)(既)(不)(想)(让)(墨)(西)(哥)(人)(成)(为)(我)(们)(的)(公)(民)(,更)(不)(想)(让)(他)(们)(成)(为)(臣)(服)(者)(,我)(们)(所)(想)(得)(到)(的)(只)(是)(这)(块)(领)(土)(。”
  屠)(杀)(印)(第)(安)(人)(,占)(领)(西)(部)(
  1872年)(,艺)(术)(家)(约)(翰)(·盖)(斯)(特)((JohnGast)画)(了)(一)(张)(油)(画)(,该)(画)(可)(能)(是)(最)(受)(欢)(迎)(的)(委)(婉)(表)(现)(出)(美)(国)(雅)(利)(安)(人)(向)(西)(迁)(移)(场)(景)(的)(画)(作)(。盖)(斯)(特)(为)(其)(油)(画)(命)(名)(为)(《美)(国)(的)(进)(步)(》(AmericanProgress),这)(幅)(画)(成)(为)(美)(国)(19世)(纪)(下)(半)(叶)(最)(畅)(销)(的)(画)(作)(。
  在)(盖)(斯)(特)(绘)(制)(的)(《美)(国)(的)(进)(步)(》中)(,画)(着)(一)(位)(衣)(袂)(飘)(飘)(的)(美)(丽)(的)(金)(发)(女)(郎)(,皮)(肤)(白)(皙)(,体)(态)(丰)(盈)(,她)(慢)(慢)(地)(向)(西)(部)(飘)(动)(。她)(的)(额)(头)(闪)(烁)(着)(“帝)(国)(之)(星)(”,右)(手)(则)(拿)(着)(文)(明)(之)(书)(——“教)(科)(书)(”,她)(的)(左)(手)(垂)(着)(一)(根)(电)(线)(。在)(金)(发)(女)(郎)(的)(下)(方)(,美)(国)(文)(明)(逐)(渐)(发)(展)(:农)(民)(在)(田)(间)(耕)(作)(,拓)(荒)(者)(坐)(着)(马)(车)(和)(牛)(车)(,矿)(工)(们)(一)(镐)(一)(铲)(地)(开)(辟)(前)(进)(的)(道)(路)(,驿)(马)(快)(信)(和)(三)(条)(横)(贯)(大)(陆)(的)(铁)(路)(一)(路)(向)(西)(。而)(在)(太)(平)(洋)(和)(前)(进)(的)(美)(国)(文)(明)(之)(间)(却)(矗)(立)(着)(野)(蛮)(——一)(头)(咆)(哮)(的)(黑)(熊)(、狂)(乱)(的)(野)(马)(、上)(身)(裸)(露)(的)(印)(第)(安)(妇)(女)(,印)(第)(安)(战)(士)(一)(手)(高)(举)(斧)(头)(,另)(一)(只)(手)(紧)(紧)(抓)(着)(他)(的)(弓)(。美)(国)(人)(西)(进)(途)(中)(,动)(物)(和)(印)(第)(安)(人)(纷)(纷)(逃)(离)(。画)(中)(并)(未)(描)(绘)(暴)(力)(场)(面)(,没)(有)(成)(堆)(的)(印)(第)(安)(人)(的)(尸)(体)(,也)(没)(有)(大)(量)(被)(屠)(杀)(的)(野)(牛)(群)(。画)(中)(有)(位)(身)(穿)(鹿)(皮)(装)(的)(边)(境)(开)(发)(者)(,手)(中)(握)(着)(一)(支)(步)(枪)(。不)(过)(,整)(幅)(画)(都)(看)(不)(到)(美)(国)(军)(队)(。
  1890年)(拍)(摄)(于)(南)(达)(科)(他)(州)(伤)(膝)(河)(附)(近)(的)(照)(片)(可)(以)(清)(楚)(地)(说)(明)(美)(国)(是)(如)(何)(占)(领)(西)(部)(地)(区)(的)(。美)(国)(雅)(利)(安)(人)(得)(意)(洋)(洋)(地)(站)(在)(一)(个)(死)(人)(坑)(前)(,他)(们)(正)(把)(冰)(冷)(的)(印)(第)(安)(人)(尸)(体)(扔)(进)(坑)(里)(。伤)(膝)(河)(的)(这)(场)(“战)(斗)(”(白)(人)(胜)(利)(者)(们)(这)(么)(说)()或)(者)(“大)(屠)(杀)(”(失)(败)(的)(印)(第)(安)(人)(这)(么)(认)(为)()是)(四)(分)(之)(一)(世)(纪)(以)(来)(美)(洲)(白)(人)(对)(印)(第)(安)(人)(残)(忍)(的)(大)(屠)(杀)(的)(最)(后)(一)(幕)(。这)(场)(屠)(杀)(也)(是)(美)(国)(历)(史)(上)(历)(时)(最)(长)(的)(战)(争)(。
  这)(是)(一)(场)(全)(面)(战)(争)(,下)(面)(就)(是)(美)(国)(在)(印)(第)(安)(战)(争)(中)(一)(个)(比)(较)(有)(代)(表)(性)(的)(军)(事)(命)(令)(:“沿)(着)(安)(蒂)(洛)(普)(山)(的)(方)(向)(向)(南)(出)(发)(,再)(从)(那)(里)(向)(沃)(希)(托)(河)(前)(进)(,这)(里)(是)(敌)(方)(所)(认)(为)(的)(过)(冬)(的)(场)(所)(;摧)(毁)(他)(们)(的)(村)(庄)(和)(小)(马)(,杀)(死)(或)(绞)(死)(所)(有)(战)(士)(,再)(把)(所)(有)(的)(妇)(女)(和)(儿)(童)(带)(回)(国)(内)(。”
  威)(廉)(·特)(库)(姆)(塞)(·谢)(尔)(曼)((WilliamTecumsehSherman)将)(军)(曾)(在)(1866年)(到)(1884年)(间)(指)(挥)(美)(国)(对)(印)(第)(安)(人)(的)(战)(争)(,他)(命)(令)(军)(队)(:“在)(军)(事)(行)(动)(中)(,不)(可)(以)(停)(下)(来)(辨)(别)(男)(女)(性)(别)(,也)(不)(可)(以)(停)(下)(来)(区)(分)(年)(龄)(大)(小)(。”士)(兵)(们)(真)(的)(没)(有)(停)(下)(来)(,经)(过)(几)(十)(年)(的)(战)(争)(,死)(亡)(的)(印)(第)(安)(人)(包)(括)(成)(千)(上)(万)(的)(母)(亲)(、孩)(子)(和)(老)(人)(,有)(些)(人)(仅)(仅)(因)(为)(美)(国)(士)(兵)(的)(游)(戏)(而)(惨)(遭)(杀)(害)(。
  西)(奥)(多)(·罗)(斯)(福)(,后)(来)(还)(有)(一)(位)(美)(国)(公)(务)(专)(员)(,都)(在)(伤)(膝)(河)(大)(屠)(杀)(三)(年)(后)(访)(问)(过)(南)(达)(科)(他)(州)(。他)(曾)(写)(道)(:美)(国)(政)(府)(用)(“最)(大)(的)(公)(平)(和)(正)(义)(”来)(对)(待)(印)(第)(安)(人)(。
  来)(源)(:澎)(湃)(新)(闻)(
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